Gut microbiota and autism spectrum disorders

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Authors

DANHOFER Pavlína HORÁK Ondřej KNEDLÍKOVÁ Lenka KOLÁŘ Senad JIČÍNSKÁ Anna-Marie JABANDŽIEV Petr OŠLEJŠKOVÁ Hana

Year of publication 2021
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Ceska a slovenska neurologie a neurochirurgie
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Citation
Web https://www.csnn.eu/en/journals/czech-and-slovak-neurology-and-neurosurgery/2021-2-7/gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-127024
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.48095/cccsnn2021127
Keywords autism; autism spectrum disorders; probiotics; gut microbiota; fecal transplantation
Description Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders with clinical manifestation in childhood, characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication, limited interests, and repetitive behavior. In recent years, there has been a signifi cant increase in the prevalence of this disorder, currently aff ecting 1-2% of children. In pathophysiology, genetic factors are mainly used, which are also modified in their phenotypic expression by environmental factors. A large percentage of patients with ASD also have a variety of gastrointestinal problems; children experience constipation or diarrhea, flatulence, or nonspecific abdominal pain. In last years, the connection of intestinal symptomatology with the manifestations of ASD has come to the forefront of scientific interest with the development of new molecular-bio logical methods of studying the community of intestinal microorganisms, the gut microbio ta. Communication between the gut and the CNS (the gut-brain axis) is made possible by a very complex two-way neurohumoral communication system. This system ensures the effect of the intestinal microbio ta on brain functions and allows the brain signals to affect the intestinal microbio ta activity and the gastrointestinal tract functions. This article focuses on various pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these processes and discusses in detail the possible therapeutic modalities that affect the gut microbio ta composition and function, such as the use of vancomycin, oxytocin, prebio tics and probio tics, as well as fecal transplantation, which has very promising results in relation to both gastrointestinal and ASD symptoms.

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