The Roads to Independence of the Female Students of Private Schools in Warsaw
The end of the 19th century in the Kingdom of Poland was a crucial period for the construction of Polish schooling and the fight for its survival. Russian authorities would attempt to limit the number of schools and their Polish character. A uniquely important role was played by schools for girls which, in their reply to the Russian indoctrination process, set as their aim the preparation of the young generation of women for independence and life in liberated Poland. The path to the realisation of this aim was through a double-track education process: simultaneously with official education the system of secret education and upbringing was organised. Thanks to this schools, in the conditions of enslavement, were able to disseminate national education and culture, form patriotic attitudes in their student, teach them to be responsible, and outline their future roles in the free fatherland.
Keywords: Kingdom of Poland; private schooling for girls; Russian indoctrination; patriotic upbringing; independence