Polish School Motherland in the Northeastern Borderlands of the Second Republic of Poland
One of the socio-educational organizations operating from the end of the 19th century in the Kingdom of Poland was the Polish School Motherland (Polska Macierz Szkolna, hereinafter: PMS). Initially illegal, work focused the attention of activists on the issues of teaching in Polish, which was addressed to various age groups of listeners. In 1916, the first Statute of the Motherland was developed, which presented the goals and directions of work and in which the promotion of and support for education in the Christian and national spirit constituted the main determinant of activity.
During the First World War, PMS turned its interest to the Northeastern Borderlands. When assessing the state of Polish education in these lands, it was obvious to take appropriate measures in the area of the former Russian Partition. However, the issue of nationality of these lands has not yet been resolved. After 1918, PMS tried to organize appropriate educational institutions, but it should be emphasized that Warsaw activists encountered a number of difficulties which resulted, among others, from ignorance of the peculiarities of these lands. Finally, in September 1919, the Polish School Motherland of Eastern Lands was established and started developing intensive work in the field of organizing: daycare centers, public schools and secondary schools (few), courses for illiterate adults, libraries and reading rooms. The Motherland was also active in the field of material help for those in need.
Keywords: Polish School Motherland; Kingdom of Poland; WWI; after 1918.